Kotagede The History Of The Islamic Mataram Kingdom
It was during the 8th century when Yogyakarta, previously known as Mataram used to be the center of the Old Mataram Kingdom, which reigned the whole of Java. The kingdom has earned a high reputation owing to the out of the ordinary civilization and prosperity. Hence, it had the capability of construction several ancient temples, that feature amazing architecture. Some of these temples are Borobudur Temple Temple and Prambanan Temple Temple. It was during the 10th century when owing to certain reasons, the center of the Government was moved to the area of East Java. A wide assortment of residents left the area of Maam after which it turned into a forest or Woodland.
It was after six centuries when The Sultanate of Pajang reigned Java. The center, at the time, was Central Java. Sultan Hadiwjaya used to reign during the time, provided Metaok Forest to Ki Gede Pemanahan, also known as ALas Metaok that used to be age area. The forest was provided as he gained success in defeating enemies of the kingdom. After this, Ki Gede Pemanahan along with his followers and family moved to Mentaok forest. This forest used to be the Old Mataram Kingdom. Ki Gede Pemanahan constructed the small village which later on achieved high prosperity.
It was after the demise of Ki Gede Pemanahan, his son who was known as Senapati Ingalaga replaced the throne. During the reign of his Senapati, the village, constructed by his father became a city which used to be really prosperous crowded. Hence, it has gained prominence as Kotagede, referred to as Kota. After this, the Senapati constructed cepuri, the inner fort around his palace along with the baluwarti, the outer fort which surrounded 200 acres area. A Moat with width like a river used to be present in the outer part of the forts.
In the Sultanate of Pajang, a fight for the power continued for the king throne post to the demise of Sultan Hadiwjaya. Arya Pangiri defeated the crown prince, Pangeran Benawa. Pangeran Benawa sought the assistance of Senapati as the government of Arya Pangiri used to be unfair to the citizens of Pajang. The Senapati conquered Arya Pangiri in a war. The Senapati was offered the throne. However, he said no to the offer. While passing away, Pangeran Benawa wrote in a will that the Senapati must reign Panjang. The Senapati thus turned to be the first ruler of Mataram after which he was offered the title of Panembahan.
Panembahan continued the expansion of the kingdom to Kediri, Madiun, Pasuruan, Pati. After his death in 1601, he was buried near the tomb of his father in Kotagede. After this, the Islamic Mataram Kingdom conquered the whole island of Jave other than Batavia and Banten. The kingdom prospered highest during the reign of the Sultan Agung, the third king. It was during the year of 1613 when the center of the kingdom was moved to Karta by Sultan Agung. Thus, came to an end of the era of Kotagede as the Islamic Mataram Kingdom central.
During the later development, Kotagede used to be crowded, though it did not remain the capital of the Kingdom anymore. Remains of history like Kotagede Mosque, the cemetery of the forefathers of the kingdom, traditional houses featuring Javanese architecture, ruins of the fort, the topography of Kampons or villages using the system of the ancient city was seen in Kotagede.
The city system of the Kingdom of Javanese is known to place the palace in a roundabout manner. The traditional market is known for stretching to North from the South. The Nagrakertagama book was written during the era of Majapahit kingdom during the 14th century which revealed the presence of the pattern at the time. The traditional market which used to be there even then is still in existence. In the Javanese calendar system, during the legi morning, you will see that the trading products, buyers, and sellers are spread throughout the market. Though there was renovation of the building, the position is still the same. In case you are willing to explore the Kotagede, you can start from the traditional market.
The Graveyard Of The Forefathers Of The Kingdom
As you take a stroll to the distance of 100 meters to the Southern part of the traditional market of Kotagede, you will reach the graveyard area of the forefathers of the Islamic Mataram Kingdom which is surrounded by the strong and tall wall. The Hindu architecture contributes to being the attribute of the graveyard area portal. Every portal comes with the thick wooden handle which is decorated with the aid of the beautiful carvings.
In order to get into the area of the graveyard, it is necessary to get dressed in the attire of traditional Javanese outfit. The visitors can enter the area of the graveyard on Friday, Monday, Sunday and Thursday between 8 in the morning to 4 in evening. The visitors do not have permission to bring a camera, take photos, wear jewelry of gold in honor of the forefathers of Mataram Kingdom.
Kotagede Mosque is recognized to be the oldest mosque in Jogja or Yogyakarta which is relocated to the graveyard area. You will be amazed at the architecture of the building.
The Javanese traditional house is located in the area of the graveyard. As you walk to the South for 50 meters, you will find the portal having a low hollow space along with a sign, saying cagar budaya.
On the Southern part of the Traditional House, you will find 3 banana trees which are nestled in the middle of the road. A small building is present in the middle which is used in order to keep watu gilang. Some written words are there on the surface of the black stone having the shape of the square. You will find watu cantheng, a special stone in the building along with three balls, comprising of yellowish stones.
Ruins of fort
You can find the actual ruins of the fort in the corners of Southeast and Southwest of the palace. As you take a stroll in Kotagede, you will gain more knowledge regarding Islamic Mataram Kingdom history which gained success in Java. In addition to this, you will be able to witness the daily activities of the local people closely. The locals are really polite. The hawkers are not really going to bother you as they will not force you to purchase anything.